By Roderick Heath
The box office success of Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989), his third trip to that popular well, partly disguised Steven Spielberg’s struggle to find his artistic maturity, a struggle that defined his oeuvre in the late 1980s and early ‘90s. With the fervent, Dickensian lilt of The Color Purple (1985) nominated for multiple Oscars but then frozen out, and Empire of the Sun (1987), now regarded as one of his greatest achievements, a box office bomb and object of critical suspicion at the time, his foray into a more “serious” brand of cinema might have seemed a blind alley. He returned to lighter, fantastical tributes to moviemaking past with Always (1989) and Hook (1991), but in spite of fine moments in both, they still look like awkward by-products. Whilst Spielberg was still working up the project that would eventually become Schindler’s List (1993), he also set out to find a new property to convert into hard-charging popcorn cinema of the type he had made his name with on Jaws (1975). He found it in a novel by Michael Crichton, a former MD who had turned to writing smart-pulpy sci-fi and thrillers for the printed page and TV in the late 1960s, and even found some success as a film director himself for a time. Crichton had essentially recycled the core idea of his 1974 hit film Westworld for Jurassic Park, both being tales of a futuristic theme park contrived to realise deeply cherished fantasies for its audience, before things go wrong, the illusion of control vanishes, and the exhibits quickly become hunters.
Jurassic Park now looks very much like a pivotal moment in Spielberg’s career—not just chronologically, or in its success, which was colossal, even industry-deflecting, re-establishing Spielberg as the titan of pop cinema and giving the Computer-Generated Imagery era its clarion blast. Jurassic Park is its own work of theatre and self-dramatization, paying tribute to the ageless wish to see something truly awesome—and to be the one who can satisfy that desire. But it’s also a study in complication, the awareness of mechanics behind spectacles and the dangers of knowledge—the lot of adulthood. Westworld’s grounding in the Me Decade milieu of the ‘70s depicted very adult fantasies realised through the well-worn sci-fi concept of the humanoid robot that goes berserk. Jurassic Park by contrast had a more original and timely scientific McGuffin to employ, and developed it with a variation on Crichton’s recycled concept, this time with broader appeal: what if scientists could recreate dinosaurs using advances in DNA technology, and exhibit the results as the ultimate tourist attraction? The concept of primeval forces placed before armies of sticky-fingered kids and their bewildered parents was obviously irresistible to Spielberg – life, and death, for whole family to enjoy.
Jurassic Park is also, more obviously, a tribute to and contemporary spin on a hallowed strand of sci-fi, one in which a remnant of the distant past and its formidable wonders is found subsisting in the present. This subgenre had roots in fare like Arthur Conan Doyle’s The Lost World and Edgar Rice Burroughs’ The Land That Time Forgot, entries from the early days of speculative fiction. The most famous movie inheritor of their lexicon was to be Merian C. Cooper and Ernest B. Schoedsack’s King Kong (1933), the definitive monster movie, and offspring over the intervening decades like Ray Harryhausen’s films and the Japanese kaiju epics. One of Jurassic Park’s key images, of the park’s wooden, momentous gateway, pays direct tribute to King Kong, whilst the opening scene deploys a wry joke for fans of the classic and a bluff for an audience expecting thrills. Tense and wary workmen and overseeing great white hunter Robert Muldoon (Bob Peck) watch as something monstrous stirs behind trees, as Kong did in his first appearance, only for it to prove something prosaic—a forklift. But the joke dies in the throat with intimations that something slyer and deadlier than Kong’s lumbering proto-machismo is in play – the mechanical monster carries forth one of the deadly chimeras science has conjured, ready to take a bite out of any hapless soul foolish enough to get close. Hints of dread give way to contrasts of absurdity and elusive promise, as lawyer Gennaro (Martin Ferrero) braves jungle depths to talk to miner Juanito Rostagno (Miguel Sandoval), who holds a shard of precious amber with its ancient prisoner, a luckless mosquito, every bit as powerful a relic pulled from the earth as Spielberg’s Ark of the Covenant. The uncertainty of the representative of modern insulation, Gennaro, in the field contrasts the confidence of Rostagno, a man engaged in an ancient and honourable art, one shared by one of the film’s core heroes Alan Grant (Sam Neill) – a digger.
Alan and his palaeobotanist colleague and lover Ellie Sattler (Laura Dern) are tempted away from their dig for velociraptor bones in the New Mexico desert by the initially obscure temptations and offerings by twinkle-eyed entrepreneur John Hammond (Richard Attenborough), who offers to fund their research for years if they agree to come with him, no questions asked, to inspect his latest creation. Alan and Ellie find themselves thrown into the company of Gennaro and flashy mathematician Ian Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum), who’s also been hired for expert opinion. Soon, the trio find out just what Hammond and his company InGen have been brewing on Isla Nublar, a remote island off the coast of Costa Rica. InGen’s scientific wizards, led by Dr Henry Wu (B.D. Wong) have conjured a motley collection of dinosaurs, bred from remnant DNA extracted from amber-entrapped prehistoric insects, and arranged in paddocks. Hammond hopes this will be the commercial coup of the millennium. He’s distressed when the three savants all bring up the potential risks and variables they’re facing now that dangerous animals have come back from the dead, even though the scientific team working for InGen that has conjured these wonders have tried their best safeguard against the chance of their populace becoming uncontrolled, including breeding them all female and leaving them hormonally deficient. But the real spanner in the works is human: Hammond’s chief computer technician Dennis Nedry (Wayne Knight), angry that he’s not getting paid enough for building Hammond’s cutting-edge, completely automated systems, has agreed to steal embryos for a rival company, and arranges to send the park haywire to cover his theft and retreat. Nedry’s plan plays out during a confluence of complicating situations, with a hurricane brushing the island and Grant, Ellie, Ian, and Hammond’s two grandchildren Lex (Ariana Richards) and Tim (Joseph Mazzello) trapped by the system breakdown in a very inconvenient situation.
The basic notions at the heart of Jurassic Park are some of the oldest and most familiar in science fiction, given an ingenious gloss of cutting-edge theory and technology. The Frankenstein question as to how far humankind’s dominion can and should stretch over the natural world is dressed up in some pop science thanks to the Chaos Theories espoused by Malcolm, who doubles as the film’s colour man: Malcolm’s extrapolation of mathematical equations is that no outcome can be entirely predicted, especially when dealing with a living system. The film minimises but doesn’t entirely eject the scientific detective element in Crichton’s book, as Alan tries to understand how the dinosaurs, in spite of their creators’ labours, prove still able to mate and reproduce: the use of frog DNA to fill in gaps in the genome proves the catalyst. Jurassic Park also came up with a great way to give those old lost world works a believable spin in an age when all the blank spots have been cleared from the world’s maps and a sense of wonder, and caution, in the face of the world steadily dulled. For Spielberg, the appeal of seeing dinosaurs is inevitably correlated with his very stock-in-trade, his cinematic skill, and the way he made the act of beholding in itself a totemic action in his work.
Jurassic Park’s most powerful scene, one of the definitive moments of Spielberg’s career, is the lovingly orchestrated climax of the film’s first movement, when the visiting scientists catch their first, amazed glimpses of one of revived dinosaurs—a dance of reaction shots, deft little dollies, and careful control of information that makes the act of seeing something amazing as important as what’s being seen, Spielberg’s hotline into the subconscious of his audience at its most precise. Alan and Ellie are instantly plunged back into their own childhood fantasies of communing with the beasts they’ve made the subjects of their adult studies, confronted by a sprawl of saurian species straight of generations of museum dioramas and picture books illustrations instantly recognisable to any dinosaur-mad kid. Amazement gives way, inevitably, to curiosity, as Alan, Ellie, and Malcolm break out of the controlled limits of Hammond’s contrived theme park flow to look more closely at the science and the machinations behind the facades. Curiosity leads to knowledge, and that’s when the fall from Eden begins—or rather the dragons in Eden start to slither out of the underbrush. The scientists voice their concerns to the point where Hammond is left bemoaning the fact the only person unequivocally on his side is Gennaro, “the bloodsucking lawyer,” who represents the purely fiscal mindset at a slight remove from Hammond’s creative vision. Small wonder the film of Jurassic Park inverts the fates of the novel where Gennaro became a mild hero and Hammond died, consumed by his own creation.
Spielberg’s empathy with Hammond is vital to Jurassic Park, the filmmaker’s identification with the character’s desire to genuinely thrill and provoke people to wonderment mediating the myopia and incidental arrogance that has created the park and leads to tragedy. Hammond is initially presented as a Venn diagram for Willy Wonka, Colonel Sanders, and Richard Branson, welcoming the innocent into his land of treats where the dangers are in full view. But Jurassic Park constantly correlates the experience of movie-going and its attendant paraphernalia with the world Hammond has engineered, and Hammond’s pride as a man who built himself up from the humblest of backgrounds – his first piece of showmanship was a flea circus – to become a maker of marvels. If a film like John Carpenter’s They Live (1988) depicted its maker’s increasing sourness and frustration with a zeitgeist he could never quite connect to and felt increasingly alienated from in sci-fi form, Jurassic Park is revealing as Spielberg’s point of view, as somebody who had known success and yet had seen it careen in unexpected directions and throw up hazards and stir worry he might be losing his way. Jurassic Park lampoons the idea of commercialising creative fruit even as it exemplifies the notion. The park is presented as the ultimate version of the Universal Studios tour where Spielberg’s man-eating shark regularly leaps from the water on several times a day, except that the dinosaurs aren’t animatronic and will happily bite you on the ass. Spielberg gets to work through his ambivalence at the idea not just of seeing private inspiration become public circus, but the distance between art and reality above all. This motive comes as another indelible image, when a velociraptor painted on a wall is suddenly contrasted by the shadow of the real thing—wriggling, sniffing, hungry for living meat.
This exemplifies another enriching aspect of Jurassic Park, one that goes a long way to explaining the longevity of the film and the franchise it spawned: Spielberg’s ability to envision the dinosaurs not simply as threats and effects but as animals, with wilful, irrepressible natures, whether they’re brutal carnivores or boding vegetarians. The explosion in special effects sophistication allowed by the use of CGI in tandem with animatronics helped articulate this idea better than most variations on this idea had managed before, from the triceratops whose sleeping bulk captivates the scientists, to a brachiosaur that sneezes over an appalled Lex, or the Heckle and Jeckle-like pair of raptors who stalk the kids through a kitchen in all their flitting curiosity and twitchy, predatory nerviness. Jurassic Park understood well the sway dinosaurs hold over people, particularly kids, avatars of a way of seeing the world as both hazardous but also potentially splendid. The figure of the tyrannosaurs that is the film’s antihero encapsulates this understanding, progressing from demonic spectre that terrorises the heroes to engine of almost paternal vengeance that defeats the all-too-human velociraptors. The escape of the tyrannosaur from its pen is the film’s core set-piece and another vignette of Spielberg’s skills at highest pitch, recalling the charge of Jaws as the monster is glimpsed in awful suggestions – a gory chunk of goat falling on the top of Lex and Tim’s car, a pair of massive jaws closing in the flash of lightning – before the beast breaks through the fence left vulnerable by Nedry’s conniving, and terrorises the kids, building to that most nightmarish moment in the Spielbergian universe: the object of awe and fascination looks right back at the beholder, and decides it wants to eat it. The humans must reach into their most instinctual, primal facets to survive.
This sequence still thrills for relatively straightforward reasons that nonetheless completely elude so many of the filmmakers with pretensions to working in the same mode as Spielberg, as he achieves the Pavlovian ideal of popular cinema – for a few minutes you’re utterly convinced of the urgent reality of what’s happening in spite of all wisdom, so well Spielberg creates the feeling of being someone small and vulnerable with the image right out of nursery room nightmare of a black and scaly monstrosity with butcher knife teeth bearing down upon you. And yet the sequence is entirely logical, even mechanistic, a series of unfortunate events where an animal’s hunger, the fear of some kids, the concern of two men and the panic of a third, and a broken-down moving parts of someone else’s dream provide the elements of a chaotic ballet. Each moment, each gesture, each mistake, each fumbled attempt at recovery, creates the context for the next, perfectly illustrating the concepts Ian has tried to expostulate unheeded. The initial note of nascent dread is signalled, like some Buddhist parable, by ripples in a cup of water – the same water, vitally, Ian had earlier used in teaching chaos theory to Ellie. By its climax, Alan has been forced to play Spielberg’s superhero Indiana Jones to save his and Lex’s lives, Malcolm almost gets himself killed to help others, and Gennaro finishes up as lizard food, plucked off a toilet in the most horrible fashion in reward for his cowardice. Alan is left leading his two battered charges through the park environs, whilst Malcolm is recovered by Ellie and Muldoon moments before having to outrun the tyrannosaurus.
For all the showy thrill-mongering, much of the pleasure and quality of Jurassic Park comes as Spielberg enjoys his cast and characters interacting and treating the storyline’s conceits with both a sense of revelry and droll suspicion. The latter element is chiefly supplied by Goldblum’s Ian Malcom, whose persona is smartly contrived as the antithesis of the old-school cliché egghead, strutting through the film as leather-clad cool kid and dryly scornful voice of reason, violently contrasting Alan’s shabby, testy earthiness, Ellie’s pleasantly nerdy pluck, and Hammond’s pixilated bonhomie. Malcolm interestingly serves in contrast to one of the classic genre story patterns, where the figure of rationalism is usually portrayed as the cold arbiter of unfeeling precepts, whereas Jurassic Park is in part the tragedy of everyone failing to listen to his Cassandra-like omens; the scientists here are the bridging and communication points between the furore of nature and the human desire for order and domain. Muldoon (expertly played by the ice-eyed Peck, who sadly died not long after) evokes another archetype, the rugged bush tracker in slouch hat, who sees the ruthless intelligence at hand in the raptors, but who finally proves no luckier than Jaws’ Quint when it comes to taking on his monstrous foes, outsmarted in the underbrush by tactics Alan had anticipated earlier. Alan and Ellie’s introductory scene sees Alan mischievously terrorising a snotty brat hanging around his paleontological dig site with tales of velociraptor acumen and savagery. Alan is basically a big kid himself, and another of Spielberg’s identification figures as the guy who likes stirring reactions in people and the man who fears taking the next step in his life as husband and father.
The bipolar aspect to Spielberg’s career was still fairly unrecognised when Jurassic Park came out. The mean and mischievous Loki of Jaws, 1941 (1979), and the first two Indiana Jones films, and the portraitist of cruelty and anarchy in The Color Purple and Empire of the Sun, was still dimmed to most eyes by the joyous Peter Pan of Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977) and E.T. – The Extra-Terrestrial (1982). Like most of his fellow generation of “Movie Brats,” Spielberg had personal motives invested in his cinema but had no problem plying his work for as big an audience as he could muster. And yet for such a “big” work, many of the best moments in the film are virtually inconsequential – Ian and Ellie flirting up a storm, Alan beaming with boyish pleasure as he listens to a sickly triceratops breathing, Hammond expressing his quiet loathing for Ian’s taunting cynicism – that nonetheless somehow manage to speak of the film’s essential theses of life in all its tumult, brutality, and empathy. The two kids along for the ride, children of a sundering family, provide surrogates for both the younger audience, and fill out one of Spielberg’s already-familiar pick-up families, as Alan grudgingly evolves from child-phobic to burgeoning father figure. Early sequences are lengthy and surprisingly talky, prizing conversation, expostulation, the give and take of ideas and ways of seeing. The seed is here for Spielberg’s handling of this motif in ostensibly more serious fare – Amistad (1997), Lincoln (2012) – just as the sequence when the visitors speak with Hammond and Muldoon at the raptor cage sees Spielberg try out a different way of shooting a scene – holding back, allowing multiple dialogues to take place at the same time – that signal an evolving aesthetic.
It’s chiefly the sense that the filmmaker is in his element that that gives Jurassic Park kick even as the storyline plays out in predictable and, yes, a little slapdash fashion. I’ve never been an uncritical fan of Jurassic Park as a whole, although I’ve come to like it a lot more with time and clearer insight into its genuinely excellent aspects and elevating flourishes. But significant flaws also remain clear. Whilst Spielberg’s animated gamesmanship is always fun, the second half never succeeds in generating a sequence as intimately scary and thrilling as the tyrannosaurus break-out, and many of the situations feel frustratingly basic, failing to build to the kinds of crescendos Spielberg manages in his greatest action-adventure films – one reason I actually prefer his sequel, the gleefully nasty and happily frivolous The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1996), which is essentially a series of Spielberg set-pieces striving to satirise and outdo earlier Spielberg set-pieces. The difficulties – and budget-soaking cost – in developing the film’s ground-breaking special effects whilst the script was still a work in progress (it was eventually credited to Crichton and David Koepp) shows through in the patchiness of some of the action, whilst the relative blandness of the film’s visual palette: Dean Cundey’s photography sometimes emphasises a surprisingly cheap, even TV-movie-like look. Nedry and Gennaro are reduced to crude, very ‘90s stereotypes when I usually expect better from Spielberg. Casually killing-off Gennaro and Muldoon left the film bereft of one of the book’s more enjoyable aspects, a lack that feels telling in the second half’s rather basic romp-and-chomp chase scenes that never, ever feel as urgent or compulsive as anything in a not so dissimilar monster-chase movie like Aliens (1986).
Still, Spielberg continues to pull off great moments – the shock of the raptor attacking Ellie right after she manages to restore power is one of his finest pieces of timing and malicious nerve, whilst the sudden reappearance of the tyrannosaurus at the very end as deus-ex-machina is ridiculous on some levels but tremendous on others. Moreover, the loose, rolling structure of Jurassic Park allowed Spielberg and his team to cram the film with throwaway touches until the film is as textured with jokes and visual flourishes as a MAD Magazine page. The tyrannosaurus’s yawing mouth glimpsed in a rear-view mirror with the message, “Objects In Mirror Are Closer Than They Appear.” Nedry disposing of a handful of shaving cream on a piece of apple pie. Strands of DNA code projected onto a marauding raptor’s face. Hammond crowing, “We spared no expense!” at having perpetual B-movie actor Richard Kiley’s voice emanate as tour guide from speakers. Hot starlet sprawled on a zebra skin embodying the call of the wild and Robert Oppenheimer puffing a pipe with warning warring for attention around Nedry’s computer space. The little dance of action Alan performs in trying to escape Tim’s yammering enthusiasm. Repurposing the Woody Woodpecker cartoon from Destination Moon (1951) as explain-it-all short as part of the Jurassic Park ride experience, a deep cut of referential wit as well as a perfect expository device. Lex with a spoonful of jelly starting to shake like the proverbial when she spies an interloping raptor. And of course that capstone flourish of the roaring T-Rex with a poster reading “When Dinosaurs Ruled the Earth” ribboning before the beast’s all too genuinely renascent power.
The achievement of Jurassic Park, both devious and ardent, is that it litters such touches around with abandon and feeds up a significant portion of its cast as dinosaur chow, and yet still manages to close out with a feeling of the sublime. The final frames offer a feeling of conciliation, acceptance, and still-bubbling curiosity rather than fear and retreat as Alan gazes out at gliding seabirds with a new sense of life in its value, both his own and the kids he’s learned to care for, and the overall continuum that defines species and evolution. John Williams, who provided one of his best scores here, dusts proceedings with a sense of grandeur, even a hint of the elegiac, fleshing out this grace-note that suggests it’s precisely what terrifies us that often draws us back in deeper curiosity and need for understanding. This pivot of comprehension moreover backs up an aspect of the tale represented by Malcolm and his cautions against arrogance, and Alan and Ellie’s inquisitive and celebratory mindset. Jurassic Park is a tale of forces inimical to human conceit and the dangers of unfettered experimentation, and yet it finally manages to affirm the yearning spirit and the act of scientific inquiry as one of personal conviction. For Spielberg, it allowed him to tether his light and dark sides together which such ease it was like there was never a problem, and it pointed the way to the future.